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       Brand practice

There are about 7 million short names (up to 5 letters) and practically infinite long names (5 to 10 letters). Nevertheless, all these names have basic structures in common, which are essential for naming.

Below we have compiled the most important ones for you. There is more to naming than meets the eye...

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L
M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W
X   Y   Z


The above names are used for illustrative purposes only. Most of these examples are copyrighted trademarks of their respective companies.

Duden, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung, Dudenverlag, Mannheim (1996). Pelz, Linguistik (1996), S. 41. Mahmoudian, Zeichen, in: Martinet, (Hrsg.), Linguistik (1973), Carroll, John M. (1985). What's in a Name? An Essay in the Psychology of Reference. New York: W.H. Freeman & Cpy Cottle, Basil (1983). Names. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. Crystal, David (1987). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fromkin, Victoria and Robert Rodman (1978). An Introduction to Language, Second Edition. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Morris, William, ed. (1979). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, New College Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Pei, Mario (1966). Glossary of Linguistic Terminology. New York: Columbia University Press. Perrine, Laurence (1977). B. Lorenzen, Designschutz im europ. und intern. Recht, Hamburg (2002); zur Illustration s. div. Design-Klassiker (z.B. Fortuny-Pallucco, BKF, Shaker-Möbel, Gilda, Eiermann-Tisch, Gugelot-Bett, Design und Moebel von Vitra, Tolomeo von De Lucchi , Luxo L-1 und div. Leuchten) auf und Sound and Sense, An Introduction to Poetry, Fifth Edition. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. The Editors of Inc. Magazine (1988). The Best of Inc. Guide to Marketing and Selling. New York: Prentice Hall Press. Vanden Bergh, Bruce, Keith Adler, and Lauren Oliver (1987). "Linguistic Distinction Among Top Brand Names," Journal of Advertising Research, August/September, 39-44.

A word formed from another word from a foreign language. Examples: Many perfumes make use of this strategy, building on the cachet of French and appropriating the considerable common pool between French and English vocabulary: 'Tresure perfume' (fr. tresor & engl. treasure).

Pathetic Fallacy
The attribution of human emotions to a product. Example: 'Happy Bett' (Swiss bed manufacturer).

A name derived from the paternal ancestor, especially common in Scandinavia. Example: 'Ericsson' (Eric's son).

A semantic shift towards an unfavorable connotation. Example: Dirne (change of meaning from Middle Low German 'servant, (peasant) maid, girl'' to 'prostitute'). Personification
A figure of speech in which a product is given human form. Examples: 'Meister Proper', 'Game Boy', 'Mr. Minit'.

A consonant cluster that is obviously associated with a specific semantic field, but is without detached meaning. Examples: -cs (predominantly technical or pharmaceutical field).

A letter or symbol that is used in place of a word. Example: @ (for 'at'), 'x' (for 'cross').

The proliferation of words that share identical, primeval (often Latin or Greek) roots. Example: light, shine, luminus (from 'lumen', Latin for light).

A prefix that connects otherwise unrelated words. Examples: Apple's 'i' suffix in ' iPod', 'iMac', 'iPhone'.

The study of the influence of psychological factors in the perception and use of language. A n example of a field of psycholinguistics is the study of the memory of linguistic concepts.