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       Brand practice

There are about 7 million short names (up to 5 letters) and practically infinite long names (5 to 10 letters). Nevertheless, all these names have basic structures in common, which are essential for naming.

Below we have compiled the most important ones for you. There is more to naming than meets the eye...

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L
M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W
X   Y   Z


The above names are used for illustrative purposes only. Most of these examples are copyrighted trademarks of their respective companies.

Duden, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung, Dudenverlag, Mannheim (1996). Pelz, Linguistik (1996), S. 41. Mahmoudian, Zeichen, in: Martinet, (Hrsg.), Linguistik (1973), Carroll, John M. (1985). What's in a Name? An Essay in the Psychology of Reference. New York: W.H. Freeman & Cpy Cottle, Basil (1983). Names. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. Crystal, David (1987). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fromkin, Victoria and Robert Rodman (1978). An Introduction to Language, Second Edition. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Morris, William, ed. (1979). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, New College Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Pei, Mario (1966). Glossary of Linguistic Terminology. New York: Columbia University Press. Perrine, Laurence (1977). B. Lorenzen, Designschutz im europ. und intern. Recht, Hamburg (2002); zur Illustration s. div. Design-Klassiker (z.B. Fortuny-Pallucco, BKF, Shaker-Möbel, Gilda, Eiermann-Tisch, Gugelot-Bett, Design und Moebel von Vitra, Tolomeo von De Lucchi , Luxo L-1 und div. Leuchten) auf und Sound and Sense, An Introduction to Poetry, Fifth Edition. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. The Editors of Inc. Magazine (1988). The Best of Inc. Guide to Marketing and Selling. New York: Prentice Hall Press. Vanden Bergh, Bruce, Keith Adler, and Lauren Oliver (1987). "Linguistic Distinction Among Top Brand Names," Journal of Advertising Research, August/September, 39-44.

The permissible combination of phonemes in a given language. Examples: 'sl-' is English-typical; 'tr-' is more French-typical.

The semantic qualities suggested by a given sound. Certain linguists have concluded that 'i' as in 'small' seems thin and puny, 'o' or 'a' as in 'massive' and 'large', on the other hand, express girth, although many exceptions to this rule exist.

The familiar form of a proper name. Companies often consider pet names for their products because of the emotional access. Examples: 'Topolino' for formerly popular Fiat model (literally: 'little mouse').

The probability that a particular word will appear in the immediate neighborhood of another word. This scheme can be exploited by commercial names. Examples: 'Moo' and 'Cow'; 'Trick' and 'Track'; 'Sheep' and 'Beh'.

The extrinsic, figurative meaning, which includes shading and overtoning. The word connotes different meanings to different people. Example: 'travel' represents relaxation for some, while others think of exoticism, and still others think of congestion and stress.

The repetition of a consonant sound which drives to a pleasing rhythm. Examples: 'Crisp crack', 'Rock'n Roll', 'Klamauk', 'Alibaba'.