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       Brand practice

There are about 7 million short names (up to 5 letters) and practically infinite long names (5 to 10 letters). Nevertheless, all these names have basic structures in common, which are essential for naming.

Below we have compiled the most important ones for you. There is more to naming than meets the eye...

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L
M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W
X   Y   Z


The above names are used for illustrative purposes only. Most of these examples are copyrighted trademarks of their respective companies.

Duden, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung, Dudenverlag, Mannheim (1996). Pelz, Linguistik (1996), S. 41. Mahmoudian, Zeichen, in: Martinet, (Hrsg.), Linguistik (1973), Carroll, John M. (1985). What's in a Name? An Essay in the Psychology of Reference. New York: W.H. Freeman & Cpy Cottle, Basil (1983). Names. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. Crystal, David (1987). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fromkin, Victoria and Robert Rodman (1978). An Introduction to Language, Second Edition. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Morris, William, ed. (1979). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, New College Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Pei, Mario (1966). Glossary of Linguistic Terminology. New York: Columbia University Press. Perrine, Laurence (1977). B. Lorenzen, Designschutz im europ. und intern. Recht, Hamburg (2002); zur Illustration s. div. Design-Klassiker (z.B. Fortuny-Pallucco, BKF, Shaker-Möbel, Gilda, Eiermann-Tisch, Gugelot-Bett, Design und Moebel von Vitra, Tolomeo von De Lucchi , Luxo L-1 und div. Leuchten) auf und Sound and Sense, An Introduction to Poetry, Fifth Edition. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. The Editors of Inc. Magazine (1988). The Best of Inc. Guide to Marketing and Selling. New York: Prentice Hall Press. Vanden Bergh, Bruce, Keith Adler, and Lauren Oliver (1987). "Linguistic Distinction Among Top Brand Names," Journal of Advertising Research, August/September, 39-44.

Semantic field
A set of words that are connected in their meaning. They form a semantic field. Example: cinema, film, soundtrack, director, actor, film role, starlet, etc.

Semantic Suitability
The degree to which a name corresponds to the things it identifies. Example: computers called 'laptop' really do fit on the lap; the word is thus characterized by high semantic suitability

Semantic position
The perceived position of a proposed name in a continuum of competing names. Often, semantic position is used as a selection criterion for new name creations; a new name must not sound weaker or slower than the name of a competing product.

The study of meanings in languages, including the relationship between language, thought, and behavior.

The likelihood that a name will stand out in a longer text. Factors such as length, initial letters, spelling, or repetition can influence this. Example: 'Moooi' (Dutch manufacturer of furniture and accessories).

A figure of speech that makes an explicit comparison between two dissimilar objects. This is done by means of constructions like 'similar', 'quasi', 'equivalent' etc..

The non-standard vocabulary of a given culture or subculture. Slang typically consists of figures of speech and coinages.

Suggestive name
A name consisting of morphemes that individually or collectively refer to or suggest an object in question, but without describing it; that is, referring only to individual attributes. Example: 'Excel' (spreadsheet software from Microsoft).

A figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole. Example: 'Staples' (American office supply retailer named after the staple).

A word that shares an identical meaning with another word. Example: 'money lending institution', 'public seating device'.

Synonymic attraction
The tendency of domains of great social interest to gather many synonyms to themselves. Example: occurrence of numerous synonyms for money, sex and cars.