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       Brand practice

There are about 7 million short names (up to 5 letters) and practically infinite long names (5 to 10 letters). Nevertheless, all these names have basic structures in common, which are essential for naming.

Below we have compiled the most important ones for you. There is more to naming than meets the eye...

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L
M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W
X   Y   Z


The above names are used for illustrative purposes only. Most of these examples are copyrighted trademarks of their respective companies.

Duden, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung, Dudenverlag, Mannheim (1996). Pelz, Linguistik (1996), S. 41. Mahmoudian, Zeichen, in: Martinet, (Hrsg.), Linguistik (1973), Carroll, John M. (1985). What's in a Name? An Essay in the Psychology of Reference. New York: W.H. Freeman & Cpy Cottle, Basil (1983). Names. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. Crystal, David (1987). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fromkin, Victoria and Robert Rodman (1978). An Introduction to Language, Second Edition. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Morris, William, ed. (1979). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, New College Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Pei, Mario (1966). Glossary of Linguistic Terminology. New York: Columbia University Press. Perrine, Laurence (1977). B. Lorenzen, Designschutz im europ. und intern. Recht, Hamburg (2002); zur Illustration s. div. Design-Klassiker (z.B. Fortuny-Pallucco, BKF, Shaker-Möbel, Gilda, Eiermann-Tisch, Gugelot-Bett, Design und Moebel von Vitra, Tolomeo von De Lucchi , Luxo L-1 und div. Leuchten) auf und Sound and Sense, An Introduction to Poetry, Fifth Edition. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. The Editors of Inc. Magazine (1988). The Best of Inc. Guide to Marketing and Selling. New York: Prentice Hall Press. Vanden Bergh, Bruce, Keith Adler, and Lauren Oliver (1987). "Linguistic Distinction Among Top Brand Names," Journal of Advertising Research, August/September, 39-44.

Trademark or stand-alone name that identifies an offering or manufacturer. A valued brand represents a monopolization of a name for a specific application. Example: 'Audi' is a trademark for premium automobiles.

Also called a byline or claim. Examples: Mercedes chose 'A good star on all roads' Lufthansa 'There's no better way to fly'.

The interpretation or analysis of an unfamiliar name by consumers. The process usually involves etymology, analogy, etc. Example: 'Java' is often associated with the software of the company Sun Microsystems, rather than with the Indonesian island that lends its name to it

A figure of speech by means of which one object or concept is associated with another. Example: 'Blackberry' is a metaphor for mobile emailing.

The literal translation of a sentence from one language into another. The translation of the Spanish 'mi casa su casa' into the German 'mein Haus, dein Haus' would be a mataphrase.

The substitution of one word for another with the same meaning. Example: using the term 'Berlin' to refer to the German government.

A meaningful linguistic unit that cannot be further subdivided into smaller meaningful components. Example: in Italian, the letter 'a' in final position is a morpheme that suggests female gender.